请选择 进入手机版 | 继续访问电脑版

战列舰

 找回密码
 加入我们

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

搜索
查看: 7500|回复: 11

【翻译】翔鹤沉没分析(一)

[复制链接]

少将

四年服役纪念章旗手

发表于 2013-11-22 00:18:19 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 o平阳公主o 于 2013-11-22 00:34 编辑

翔鹤沉没分析---假说推测部分

原文作者为Anthony Tully, Jon Parshall and Richard Wolff


在菲律宾海海战(被日方称为马里亚纳海空战)中,旧日本海军在战役中的36小时内就连续损失3艘主力航母。他们分别是大凤、翔鹤和飞鹰。三艘航母都有着相同的命运,都是由于被鱼雷命中后大量油气挥发而产生大爆炸而沉没。有相当数量的资料解释了大凤的沉没,解释飞鹰的沉没的资料则要少些。本文主要侧重于对于久经战阵的名舰---翔鹤号沉没的分析。翔鹤号于1944年6月19日被美军潜艇棘鳍鱼号击沉。
        翔鹤是一艘相当有名的军舰,也是一直久经战阵伤痕累累的战艦。她的战记包括突袭珍珠港、印度洋攻略、珊瑚海海战以及一系列围绕瓜岛进行的海空战。与瑞鹤同样作为第五航空战队的重要组成部分,翔鹤几乎经历了太平洋战场上除了中途岛海战的其他所有航母对决。有一部分历史学家指出,由于在珊瑚海的战损而造成的两鹤缺席中途岛海战直接导致该战役日军的失败,且不论这种说法是否准确客观,无论从人员还是战绩上,翔鹤号的能力都属于最高水准。而时至1944年6月美军大举入侵日本拟定之“绝对国防圈”---马里亚纳群岛,两鹤很自然的被编归小泽治三郎辖属,与全新的大型航空母舰---大凤号组成机动舰队抵抗美军。
        日本海军对这场决定国家命运的“决战”---阿号作战报以极大的期待,希望能通过集中舰载机部队和岸基飞行队重挫美军,御敌于国门之外。但是现实终归未能如此。大凤号由于复杂的原因仅仅遭受一枚鱼雷命中后而毁灭。翔鹤号则在同日由于同样的原因---潜艇袭击而被击沉。


受到攻击时的状况
在1944年6月19日的1100时分,三艘旧日本海军最强大的航母放飞了他们的机群,兵锋直指负责掩护马里亚纳群岛登陆作战的美军航母部队。三艘航母此时正排成三角,形成一个箭头,瑞鹤在前领航,大凤翔鹤分别在后方左右两侧。这是历史上最大的一次航母对决,日军已经放飞了两波攻击机群,而在此时美军侦察机还并未发现日本机动部队的位置。此刻还没有任何预兆,然而在此后的短短5小时内,两艘日军大型航母将葬身大海。
早在同日的上午0810时分,美军潜艇大青花鱼(USS Albacore)成功命中了小泽的旗舰大凤号。虽然大凤的损管队很快就控制住了局势,但是舰内的油气始终无法解决,并且油气浓度随时可能达到临界值。三个小时后,第二艘美军潜艇突进了小泽的舰队内部,她就是棘鳍鱼(USS Cavalla)。她进入了小泽舰队的南面并在1048时分发现了正在回收侦察机的翔鹤号。
棘鳍鱼的舰长,赫尔曼科斯勒中尉发现这艘巨大的日本航母吐着蒸汽正向东南驶去,而另一艘日军驱逐舰浦风(Urakaze)正在翔鹤的右舷,在翔鹤的左舷前方是轻巡洋舰矢矧和重巡洋舰羽黑,棘鳍鱼将其误认为两艘高雄级重巡。棘鳍鱼此时的位置非常理想。在仅仅三次露出潜望镜后,在1118时分,棘鳍鱼在1200码的距离上一次性向翔鹤右舷齐射了6枚鱼雷。。。

(介于中间涉及数学模型构造与运算过程,这里译者直接跳过,有兴趣者可查看原文)





假说1(如图)
基于假说1,翔鹤右舷前半部中雷四枚,直接导致了大量进水。一号鱼雷非常致命,直接命中了翔鹤的航空燃油舱并引发了火灾。二号鱼雷命中了翔鹤的锅炉舱,进水极有可能淹没了翔鹤8个锅炉舱中的2个,并且有可能致使翔鹤的主机停转(其实太平洋战争中有很多日本航母中雷一本就动力全失的例子)。三号鱼雷直接命中了翔鹤的弹药舱和鱼雷储备舱(也许命中了临近的部位),并且很有可能加剧了一号鱼雷在航空燃油舱的损害。在这第三枚鱼雷命中后,翔鹤右舷累计已有将近49m的口子,包括了一大块动力舱的部分。这毋庸置疑的引起了翔鹤的右倾。正在一片混乱的同时,棘鳍鱼发射的第五枚鱼雷命中了翔鹤的舰首,可能直接在两舷炸开了进水口(口子宽度在4.5m到6m之间)。这枚鱼雷也加剧了翔鹤的进水并导致了首倾。整个翔鹤受到的损害主要是舰体前部的一次剧烈进水、几处火灾、弹药库的潜在爆炸威胁与锅炉舱的破坏。





假说2(如图)
基于假说2,翔鹤舰首中雷三枚,舰尾中雷一枚。在舰首极前部的两次中雷直接导致了翔鹤的首倾。另一枚命中航空燃油舱,引发了火灾。在本假说中,四号鱼雷命中了舰尾的舵机舱,然而在日本人的史料中没有任何翔鹤舵机舱被命中的说法,这是非常不自然的,如果这么重要的部位被命中,日本人是不可能不记录的。





假说3(如图)
基于假说3,本假说和假说1很相似,但有一定区别。舰首区后部、航空燃油部位与动力舱部位都被命中,动力舱的损害相对假说1较小,只有一个锅炉舱被毁。舰首的命中相对前两个假说都要靠后,但是同样引发了首倾。

下面是几个可以区分假说的重要点:
1、        鱼雷是否命中了航空燃油舱
2、        鱼雷命中是否导致了翔鹤持续的首倾
3、        鱼雷是否命中动力舱并让翔鹤主机停转
4、        鱼雷命中后是否导致了翔鹤的全舰断电
5、        是否棘鳍鱼的前三发鱼雷都命中了
6、        鱼雷命中是否引发了火灾
7、        是否是4枚命中(日本人的资料多显示4枚命中)

下图就是关于这些问题的图表



假说分析
根据上面的图表可以发现各个假说的有力之处与弱点,很明显,假说2是最没有说服力的,上文也有提到,日本人的资料并未提及舵机舱的命中,这与假说本身不符,而对于如此重要的部位受到命中而避之不谈是很少见的。该假说也显示没有鱼雷命中航母的动力舱。而事实上,在棘鳍鱼被发现的同时翔鹤号就有立即动力全失或者受到损失的迹象。

即使是依据推演模型的假说3也是不太准确的,可以看出,假说3中只有命中航空燃油舱的三号鱼雷造成的损失是严重的,命中锅炉舱的那枚也许也比较严重,其余的两枚并不致命,棘鳍鱼给翔鹤造成的损失只算是个中创,这与日本资料所提到的鱼雷命中后的翔鹤受创严重的说法并不相符。

假说1则对当时的情形还原的较为真实,四枚鱼雷全打在了舰体前部,而且几乎命中了那个区域内所有有价值的部位(航空燃油舱、锅炉舱、弹药舱)。特别是三号鱼雷,命中了一号鱼雷与二号鱼雷命中区的中间,加剧了这两枚鱼雷造成的损害,也许还将两个部位的口子连接在了一起加大了进水的程度,这一枚鱼雷命中后立刻就将翔鹤损管部门的工作复杂化了,翔鹤在此时失去了两个锅炉舱后还有弹药舱和航空燃油舱的火势蔓延到其他动力舱的可能,同时那最后命中舰首极前端的那枚鱼雷更是直接导致了首倾的持续进行。


另外也有更多的史料支持假说1,日本人的资料特别提到首次鱼雷命中后滚烫的水蒸气和燃烧体的混合物喷溅至舰桥前方,致使一些飞行员丧命。这份资料有力地说明了第一枚鱼雷命中了航空燃油舱。纵观以上,作者认为假说1是最能还原当时情形的。



原文网址:http://www.combinedfleet.com/shoksink.htm

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?加入我们

x
There, only there,
in the annihilation of hate and anger, and ego,
is our salvation.
回复

使用道具 举报

上尉

五年服役纪念章旗手

发表于 2013-11-22 00:35:25 | 显示全部楼层
蝗国战斗翔报说了4本命中,但是又记录了“3軸運転となり速力が低下した”,意思是减速但是3轴保持运行,说明动力没有大损,其后才有注水作业,结果注水过多导致了左倾,最终沉没也是左倾
“また左舷への注水作業によって傾斜の復旧作業が実施されたが、注水のしすぎによって、逆に左舷に傾斜してしまう”。3轴运作也能推测出不转的那个轴应该是右侧轴,我推测后方舵机舱中雷
回复

使用道具 举报

少将

四年服役纪念章旗手

 楼主| 发表于 2013-11-22 00:42:17 | 显示全部楼层
akagizuo 发表于 2013-11-22 00:35
蝗国战斗翔报说了4本命中,但是又记录了“3軸運転となり速力が低下した”,意思是减速但是3轴保持运行,说 ...

首倾不可避免,不过多注水要么首倾沉没要么右倾沉没,或者说注水与否本身就无法控制,因为已经前倾了
至于舵机中雷,首倾应该没有那么严重,而且如果舵机中雷,你可以看到假说2的图,那个损害范围是不小的,不可能只有一轴失力,而且即使三轴运转,他同时也写了速力低下,而在中雷前翔鹤是在回收飞机,回收飞机的船速大致是25节,相对于25节如果是速力低下,那就应该是很低,基本可以算是动力全失
There, only there,
in the annihilation of hate and anger, and ego,
is our salvation.
回复

使用道具 举报

上尉

五年服役纪念章旗手

发表于 2013-11-22 01:06:11 | 显示全部楼层
http://www.combinedfleet.com/shoksink.htm
教主差不多把Tully全文翻译了……功德无限啊
可以把作者脑补的这个也写上,我觉得很不错
In the foregoing analysis we attempted to locate the likely impact points as indicated by the best evidence, but bear in mind the results must be regarded as hypothetical. However, the description of the aftermath and sinking that follows belongs to the realm of reported fact, and relates details of Shokaku's last hours beleived to be previously unpublished in English.

At 1120 the Shokaku's watch was preoccupied scanning the skies for enemy aircraft, and were later judged to not have been as mindful of danger from below as they should have been. Thus when the lookout sighted torpedoes bearing 60 degrees off the starboard bow and gave warning, the tracks were already very close and it was too late. Though Captain Matsubara ordered evasive action, the situation was beyond redemption. Three, possibly four, torpedoes (survivors disagree) struck the ship at eight second intervals. The torpedo hits, whether three or four, were devastating, but not immediately fatal.

Hits were recorded concentrated on the starboard side forward and amidships. One torpedo hit under and forward of the island, shattering and igniting an av-gas main that sent a fireball and burning spray bursting upwards in front of the bridge, burning and injuring several aviators relaxing before the island. Immediately some of the just-landed and fueling aircraft in the hangar exploded into flames, and the pressure of the detonation lifted the elevators 90 centimeters (nearly three feet). The wrecked lifts fell back into the wells, dumping hapless mechanics who had been standing on the forward lift into the inferno.

Shokaku had just recovered planes and was fueling others when the torpedoes struck; thus highly volatile av-gas was flowing through pipes in the vicinity of the impacts. Nothing could have been as catastrophic in timing. As many as nine aircraft were in the hangar, and the hangar was turned into chaos by the shocks. Gas spewed from ruptured aircraft tanks and caught fire, and ammunition on hoists began to explode, turning the hangar into a blast furnace. Exploding bombs and aircraft fuel tanks added to the conflagration and cut down men trying to fight the fire, so that pieces of "dismembered bodies lay everywhere about the deck".

With boiler rooms on the starboard side flooding quickly, the Shokaku at once lost speed, fell out of formation, and began to list rapidly to starboard. Reacting quickly, Captain Matsubara ordered port spaces counterflooded to correct the list. This was done, but too well, as damage control efforts overcompensated, and Shokaku flopped over into an opposite heel to port! [It should be noted that the magnitude of counterflooding necessary to accomplish this reverse heel to port most likely would have involved flooding of port-side machinery spaces, further complicating Shokaku's power situation.] At the same time the carrier was beginning to trim noticeably by the bow, for one of the torpedoes there had opened a large hole. [Our analysis revealed just such a hit and raised the distinct possibility that the bow was rent clean through, which could explain the marked head trim reported throughout]. The upshot was that before noon the Shokaku had become unnavigable and gone dead in the water, fires raging.

In the interim, the fire in the hangar had become an inferno, for all electric circuits had failed immediately following the hits. One of the torpedoes had struck close to the forward bomb magazines and apparently this had knocked out the generator and switchboard located in this very area. [Once again, the historical record gives striking confirmation of our reconstruction, which shows just such a hit]. When power failed it was impossible to power the pumps. The blaze made it impossible to reach or man the armored control booths for the fire mains in the hangar and thus there was no effective means to contain the mounting conflagration. In desperation the veteran damage control teams broke out portable extinguishers and even formed bucket brigades. However, such measures could hardly prevail against the flames, and the burning gasoline spewing from shattered pipes that "came down like burning rain on their heads". The ship was in extreme jeopardy.

Nonetheless, Shokaku's damage control was among the most experienced in Kido Butai, experience born of hard-trials, when they had saved Shokaku twice---first at the Battle of the Coral Sea, and then at Santa Cruz. Those lessons now came into play and by early afternoon there seemed cause for hope. Though the fire in the hangar still raged, those in the gas tanks had been extinguished by closing off all access in the surrounding spaces. There were not too many aircraft aboard, and there was a chance the fuel fires in the hangars could be doused if they could just be contained. The inadvertent list to port remained moderate, and helped balance the rising water in the starboard side. However, the pumps were not operable and the bow continued to settle. If power could be restored, there might be hope, but this seemed unlikely. Not only that, but the deadly and highly flammable vapor from the unrefined Tarakan fuel oil (now being widely used in extremis aboard Japanese warships as Japanese refineries had run dry due to shipping losses) and the ruptured gas tanks had begun to spread through the ship. The enclosed hangar had poor ventilation in the best of conditions, and many of the ventilators were now destroyed. Thus, even though damage control had made progress in isolating the main outbreaks of fire to forward and amidships, their efforts were nullified as leaking gas and ammunition periodically exploded.

In the meantime, the Shokaku's attacker had been weathering a rather ferocious depth charge attack from Lt. Comdr. Yokota Yasuteru's Urakaze. The first salvo of four exploded at the same time as Kossler's fourth torpedo, close and to port of the sub. Subsequently over the next three hours, the Cavalla counted 106 depth charges, 56 of which "were fairly close". The shocks started flooding in the hull induction and ventilation supply piping outboard, the QB and JK-C supersonice gear burned out, and all sound but JP disabled. But this damage was moderate, and by 1330 the depth charges began to slacken. Moreover, JP sound gear began to report "loud water noises" from the target. Evidently something was happening to the carrier. Indeed it was.

By 1330 the fires on Shokaku were growing much worse and flames began spouting from the flight deck and elevator wells and could be seen from the other ships. Moreover, the bow continued to subside into the sea, and the situation soon became hopeless as the forecastle came awash. Reluctantly Captain Matsubara bowed to the inevitable and gave word that all hands should come up on deck, and prepare to abandon ship. Thorough check was to be made that no one remained below to perish. Officers groped their way through burning and smoke-filled compartments, calling out names and looking for any one left behind. Several hundreds of the ship's company now gathered on the flight deck aft, where the fire had not yet reached, and assembled for roll call. Others energetically threw wreckage and rafts overboard to men who had been blown into the water, or leaped into the sea and swam to the floats themselves.

On the flight deck aft, the men waited in supernatural calm as the chiefs and officers made their head count, even though explosions continued to rock the ship and the flight deck was now starting to slant perceptibly downwards. In fact, at that very moment the seas were swallowing the forecastle and rising up to the level of the flight deck itself. As the bow settled, wreckage and bombs and burning planes in the hangar began to slide and bump forward. It was then that total catastrophe, even greater than that already in progress, struck.

Either it was touched off by one of the fires, or was set off by tumbling as the ship nosed forward, but at 1408 an aerial bomb on the hangar deck forward exploded. Immediately the volatile gases that had been accumulating below were ignited, and the Shokaku was rent by an ominous grumble deep down inside. This was followed by a truly devastating cacophony of "four terrific explosions" followed by several smaller ones as the forward bomb and torpedo magazines were touched off. In a prolonged convulsion of three minutes the Shokaku literally began to blow apart at the seams.

The men gathered aft were caught completely off-guard--they had assumed they had several minutes to evacuate; in reality they now had only seconds. They were sent tumbling and sliding down the flight deck as Shokaku's shattered bow plunged under the waves. Water surged over and across the flight deck and poured in a torrent through the open No.1 elevator into the hangar. The inrush yanked the stricken carrier downward, causing her fantail to rear terrifyingly and suddenly into the sky.

Screaming and frantically trying to grab anything to hold onto, the mass of humanity on Shokaku's flight deck aft slid down the incline to their deaths and a "fiery hell" as they fell headlong into the open and blazing No.3 elevator into the cavernous inferno that had been the hangar. Survivors already in the water were horrified and the sight of the white-clad mass streaming down to incineration in the elevator pit would remain with them for the rest of their lives. The blazing carrier's stern continued to rise, till it was nearly vertical, and in a scene reminiscent of the sinking of the Titanic, then corkscrewed downwards with a "groaning roar" and collapsed into the deep, disappearing amid churning seas, fire and smoke. Bobbing among the wreckage littered waters the scattered patches of survivors began "to sing Shokaku's song with blood tears". The time was scarcely twelve past two----only two minutes had elapsed since the induced explosion. (Position: 12°00' N, 137°46' E)

The stunned Yahagi and Urakaze wasted little time in dashing forward among the mass of wreckage to the rescue. The sea was fairly calm, but the suddenness of the catastrophe precluded most chances for escape. The loss of life was appalling: fully 887 petty officers and men, and 376 men of Air Group 601; a total of 1,263 souls in all, had perished. Among the dead were some of the last of Kido Butai's great veterans, including Shokaku's Air Officer, Mitsueo Matsuda, the man who had led the bombing raids that subdued Wake Island. The death toll was keenly felt, for it was the worst to date for Kido Butai, having surpassed even the much-mourned loss of Kaga at Midway. However, by some miracle Captain Matsubara Hiroshi was among the 570 fortunate survivors rescued by light cruiser Yahagi and destroyer Urakaze. As the rescuers worked, small squalls gathered about, as if "adding their tears". In contrast to the human, the aircraft toll was small---only nine planes were listed by Mobile Fleet as having gone down with Shokaku. With the sinking of Shokaku, only her sister-carrier remained of the once proud Kido Butai that had attacked Pearl Harbor.
回复

使用道具 举报

少将

四年服役纪念章旗手

 楼主| 发表于 2013-11-22 01:09:36 | 显示全部楼层
akagizuo 发表于 2013-11-22 01:06
http://www.combinedfleet.com/shoksink.htm
教主差不多把Tully全文翻译了……功德无限啊
可以把作者脑补的 ...

这个就是后面的Damage部分,快翻完了,过两天发出来。。。
There, only there,
in the annihilation of hate and anger, and ego,
is our salvation.
回复

使用道具 举报

上尉

五年服役纪念章旗手

发表于 2013-11-22 01:17:53 | 显示全部楼层
o平阳公主o 发表于 2013-11-22 00:42
首倾不可避免,不过多注水要么首倾沉没要么右倾沉没,或者说注水与否本身就无法控制,因为已经前倾了
至 ...

25节巡航说明全舰出力在1半左右,要么是半机运作要么就是半机的蒸汽压力,遇到右舷锅炉舱进水,肯定会减速。4本鱼雷命中,情况用tully话说是毁坏性的,但不是立即致命的
回复

使用道具 举报

上尉

五年服役纪念章旗手

发表于 2013-11-22 01:25:44 | 显示全部楼层
o平阳公主o 发表于 2013-11-22 01:09
这个就是后面的Damage部分,快翻完了,过两天发出来。。。

按照tully说法,翔鹤在抢救下,下午的早些时候还看到点希望……后来彻底无法挽救还是婆罗洲油气挥发和航空汽油管道泄漏之后,通风能力严重不足造成的爆炸
回复

使用道具 举报

少将

四年服役纪念章旗手

 楼主| 发表于 2013-11-22 01:26:36 | 显示全部楼层
akagizuo 发表于 2013-11-22 01:17
25节巡航说明全舰出力在1半左右,要么是半机运作要么就是半机的蒸汽压力,遇到右舷锅炉舱进水,肯定会减 ...

首倾加右倾,动力损坏加弹药燃油受创,还不够致命么
There, only there,
in the annihilation of hate and anger, and ego,
is our salvation.
回复

使用道具 举报

少将

四年服役纪念章旗手

 楼主| 发表于 2013-11-22 01:30:56 | 显示全部楼层
akagizuo 发表于 2013-11-22 01:25
按照tully说法,翔鹤在抢救下,下午的早些时候还看到点希望……后来彻底无法挽救还是婆罗洲油气挥发和航 ...

封闭式机库的大弊端
There, only there,
in the annihilation of hate and anger, and ego,
is our salvation.
回复

使用道具 举报

上尉

五年服役纪念章旗手

发表于 2013-11-22 01:57:24 | 显示全部楼层
o平阳公主o 发表于 2013-11-22 01:30
封闭式机库的大弊端

翔鹤的机库已经为了尽量宣泄爆炸能量,把上部机库壁做得尽量轻薄了,基本大部分上部机库壁就是个隔断作用。珊瑚海和南太两次翔鹤的机库壁也确实起到了作用,不过像美底那样做成卷砸门效果肯定更好
鱼雷损伤是不立即致命,原文
The torpedo hits, whether three or four, were devastating, but not immediately fatal.
回复

使用道具 举报

少将

四年服役纪念章

发表于 2013-11-22 04:46:50 | 显示全部楼层
好厉害 建议公主和Tully合作马里亚纳的新书
"truly a fighting admiral who never lost a battle, nothing was forgiven and very little applauded."
回复

使用道具 举报

少校

五年服役纪念章旗手

发表于 2013-11-22 09:11:52 | 显示全部楼层
其实个人感觉,一艘2万多吨的航母侧弦一下中了4发潜射鱼雷即使没有连带效应的话基本上也是挂定了......。
回复

使用道具 举报

手机版|Archiver|© 2010-2018 zhanliejian.com, All Rights Reserved ( 沪ICP备13004737号

GMT+8, 2019-4-21 15:00 , Processed in 0.118905 second(s), 14 queries , File On.

Powered by Discuz! X3.3

© 2001-2017 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表