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无畏舰火控浅介

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八年服役纪念章功勋勋章钻石金双剑金橡叶铁十字勋章行政立法委骑士团勋章政道纪念章旗手终身荣誉会员

发表于 2011-1-21 22:02:26 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2013-9-16 13:28 编辑

本文原放置于 SonicBBS精华区, 搬过来凑个热闹。来源是一甲子前美国海军军官炮术教范的火控导论,浅介无畏舰火控的发展进程。本篇基本上是逐句翻译,我保留了原文是因为无畏舰火控不是汉语所本有的东西,一旦翻译或理解不当,还有英文可供参照。另外我也会附加一些出自这本教范的常见火控术语定义,希望能提供火控同好们有比较好的基本共识。译者加注则以【】标出以示负责。标题采用无畏舰火控是因为现代火控得以发展完备是得力于无畏舰的出现,且由于战列舰上的各种火控系统向下推广就成了巡洋舰和驱逐舰的火控,所以本篇实际涵盖了所有二战及之前的火炮控制系统简介。

(mathewwu原发表于: SonicBBS 2008-4-11 20:49:22)
NAVAL ORDNANCE AND GUNNERY
VOLUME 2, FIRE CONTROL
海军军械与炮术 第二卷 火控
美国海军军官学校,军械与炮术部,1950年版,1958年修订

CHAPTER 15
INTRODUCTION TO FIRE CONTROL

第15章
火控导论

A. Historical Preface
A. 历史前言

15A1. General
15A1. 综述
Fire control is the technique of delivering effective fire on a selected target. It includes the material, personnel, methods, communications, and organization necessary to harass, damage, or destroy the enemy. Within the Navy, however, the term has been customarily restricted to the control of gunfire, while more specific terms such as torpedo fire control and rocket fire control are used for other weapons.
火控是将有效火力投射到一个指定目标上的技术。它包括了用来袭扰,损坏,或摧毁敌人所必需的物质,人员,通信,以及组织。然而,在美国海军里,这个名词已惯常被限缩到专指火炮射控,而其它射控如鱼雷射控火箭射控都需要特别指明。
The fundamental problem of gun fire control is to direct the gun in such a way that the projectile will hit the designated target. If the target is stationary and close enough, the problem is not difficult. Complications are introduced by increasing the range, by shooting from a moving platform such as a ship, by shooting at moving targets, and by shooting many guns at the same target with centralized control. The increase in range increases the time of flight of the projectile, allowing gravity to exert its influence over a longer period of time and to cause the projectile to fall more and more below the projected axis of the bore of the gun. The increase in time of flight also permits greater accumulation of errors caused by motion of own ship and target or by ballistic factors such as wind and drift. As battle range and target speed increase, requirements for accuracy of original measurements and in more complex computations increase.
火炮射控基本课题是指挥火炮使炮弹能击中指定的目标。如果目标距离很近同时又固定不动,这个课题并不困难。随着距离逐渐拉大,发射炮台在移动,被射击的目标也在移动,然后又要集中控制多门火炮射击同一个目标,这个课题就愈来愈复杂。距离增大表示弹丸飞行时间拉长,随着时间加长地心引力作用也因而增大,导致弹丸从发射轴线落下的程度也愈来愈大。飞行时间拉长也使得因敌我相对运动或风力偏流等弹道因素所造成的误差累积得更大。当战斗距离拉大与目标航速变快,对原点测量的精度以及繁复计算的要求就更高了。

15A2. Early fire control
15A2. 早期火控
The development of fire control as a science and as an art has been pretty much the product of the last century and a half. Prior to 1800, there was no need for elaborate fire control, because the guns themselves were inaccurate except at short ranges. Battle ranges of the period were pistol shot (about 50 yards) and half pistol shot (about 20 yards).
火控发展成为一门科学及技艺算来也就是过去一个半世纪的产物。从1950年代倒推。】在1800年以前,火控并不被讲究,因为除非距离很近火炮本身没有精度可言。作战距离不出手枪射程(约50码 )甚至手枪的一半射程(约20码 。)【见附图1】

【图1: 从单打独斗进步到中央火控。】


Sighting consisted chiefly of setting the guns in azimuth, and of leveling them by eye. Sometimes allowance for the curvature of the trajectory was made by “sighting by the line of metal.” This was done by aligning the top of the breech and the top of the muzzle with the point of aim, causing the gun to be elevated by the amount of the taper of the gun from breech to muzzle.
瞄准方式主要是把炮对准目标方位,然后用目测调整炮口高低。有时会以“炮身瞄准“方式来补偿不平直的弹道。通过使用炮尾及炮口上缘对准瞄准点,由于炮身后粗前细造成斜度使口上扬来完成校正。【见附图2】

【图2: 从18世纪以前瞄准大致方向,到19世纪初叶的前后固定瞄准具,到19世纪末叶的瞄准望远镜,再到现代16寸炮瞄准镜。】


Little attempt was made to regulate initial velocity. Powder charges were estimated, and the projectile load was variable. One shot or several shots were used for a charge, and at close quarters guns were frequently loaded to the muzzle with grape shot.
那时对初速的调节作出的尝试不多。但已有计算发射药量,也赋予弹丸不同的重量。一次装药可发射一颗或多颗弹丸,在近距离部署时更经常装填葡萄弹。
Nautical gunners became aware of the problem of deck tilt for obvious reasons. One early device for correcting for the roll of the ship was a round shot suspended from a spar. The gunner watched this improvised pendulum swing with the roll of the ship, and just before it was parallel to the mast, he applied his slow match to the touch hole of the piece. Another practice depending upon the roll of the ship was that of firing at the crest of the roll to increase the range.
航海炮手很快就发觉到甲板倾斜的课题。早年为修正船身横摇所发明的一个器材是把一颗圆形弹丸用绳索吊在桅樯下。炮手会注意看着这颗即兴发明的会随着船身摇晃的垂摆,当它摆到与桅杆平行时,炮手就把点火绳凑上发火口开炮。另外一个利用船身摇摆的例子是当船舷摇到最高点时开炮以获得最大射程。【见附图5】

【图5: 这个简单的发明使用与精密的垂直稳定仪同样的原理。】
  

15A3. Development of fire control
15A3. 火控的发展
Improvements in fire control were for many years correlated with increases in gun range.
多年以来火控的进展都与火炮的射程息息相关。
The table, GUNNERY RANGES 1862-1948, shows how gunnery ranges have been increased during the past century. Since these improvements represent specific attempts to develop particular phases of fire control, each of these aspects will be separately treated in the succeeding paragraphs.
1862-1948炮术射程这张表显示出过去一世纪以来炮术射程是如何增加的。这些进展代表不同时期对火控发展的特定尝试,每一面向将在下文中分别叙述。见附图0

图0:1862-1948炮术射程的进展,从上到下分别为南北战争,对马海战,美海军演练,多格尔沙洲海战,美海军演练,一战结束,二战后。

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 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-21 22:03:11 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-4-22 10:10 编辑

15A4. Gun sights
15A4. 火炮瞄准具  【见上图2】
Gun sights introduced early in the nineteenth century consisted of fixed front and rear sight points so adjusted that the line of sight across their tips was parallel to the bore of the gun. The only advantage was a definite means of leveling the gun at the point of aim, although elevation could be adjusted within small limits by regulating the coarseness of the sights taken across the points.
十九世纪初的火炮瞄准具由炮身前后两个尖点构成,视线通过两尖点顶端就得出与火炮炮膛平行的瞄准线。虽说可以靠瞄准具上的刻痕来微调炮口仰角,但实际上唯一的好处就是有了一个可以确实使炮身对瞄准点作出高低调整的工具。
Improvements in guns and powder during and after the War Between the States resulted in such increases in range and accuracy that graduated gun sights became a necessity. A movable leaf, adjustable both vertically and laterally, was fitted into the rear sight. Correction for drift caused by the adoption of rifling in big guns was approximated by inclination of the rear sight bracket.
南北战争中及结束后对火炮和发射药的改进带来射程及精度的增加,也使得带刻度的火炮瞄准具变得更有必要。人们在后瞄准座上安装一个小齿轮以上下左右移动。并且靠稍微偏移后瞄准座来修正大型火炮因膛线所带来的偏流【即表尺的概念。】。
Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the sight telescope was developed. The sight telescope was mounted in such a way that the line of sight could be offset from the axis of the bore of the gun to correct for range, drift, and relative motion of gun and target. Elevation scales were graduated in accordance with proving-ground data, and the weight and composition of powder charges were carefully regulated. An improvement in operation was effected by installing two sights and dividing the responsibility of keeping on target between the pointer in elevation, and the trainer in train.
到十九世纪末叶,瞄准望远镜被开发出来了。这种瞄准镜底座是可以转动的,使得瞄准线能够偏离炮膛轴线以修正射程,偏流及火炮与目标之间的相对运动。仰角标尺对应试射场的射程资料刻出度数【即对应射表的弧尺。】,发射药的重量和成分也加以规范。在操作上的一个改进是装设了两具瞄准镜,由俯仰手负责炮口高低瞄准,回旋手负责炮口左右瞄准,来分担瞄准目标的任务。

15A5. Development of fire control instruments
15A5. 火控仪器的发展
Naval gunnery practices demonstrated the need of precise measurement of quantities basic to the solution of the fire control problem and to exact and continuous computation. It is of interest that the first steps were taken by young officers who were concerned with practical performance.
通过海军炮术演练显示,为火控解算和实时连续计算所提供的那些基本数据,确有必要做进一步的精密测量。值得注意的是,这项发展的第一步是由关心演练成绩的青年军官所踏出去的。
Range measurement. When it was found that estimation of range was no longer sufficiently accurate, mechanical aids were sought. The first of these was the stadimeter, adapted to this purpose by 1898. The stadimeter was crude, and was accurate only for short ranges, but it embodied a principle used later in the coincidence rangefinder, which provides sufficient accuracy for surface fire control under good visibility conditions. Later the stereoscopic rangefinder was developed, giving equal accuracy for surface targets and making it possible to range on fast-moving air targets. Recently radar has carried range accuracy out beyond the shooting limit of the guns, and is not dependent upon clear visibility.
距离测量:当人们发现距离估测不够精确时,就去寻求机械辅助。第一种为这个目的列装的仪器是1898年【美西海战】采用的标杆测距仪【貌似只有美军使用这种工具,同时间欧洲已开发出光学测距仪了。】标杆测距仪精度不高,仅能应付短距离,但它其中的一项原理后来应用到重合式光学测距仪上,后者在能见度良好的情况下能对水面目标提供足够精确的数据。稍后立体式光学测距仪也发展出来,除了精确测量水面目标之外,还可以测快速移动的空中目标。晚近雷达更能提供超越火炮射击距离之外的精确测距,而且不必再依赖清晰的能见度。【见附图3

【图3从粗略的标杆测距仪到精确的光学测距仪。】


Computing devices. The largest and most important corrections in fire control are those that compensate for the relative motion of own ship and target. This relative motion usually causes continuous, and sometimes rapid, change in values of range, relative bearing, and in case of air targets, elevation. Since there are two distinct time lags between the initial determination of the line of sight and the actual impact or burst of the projectile-the time lag between the initial measurement and the solution of the problem, including transmission of the orders to the gun, and the time of flight of the projectile-relative motion will introduce enough error to cause a miss if its effects are not predicted and properly taken into account.
计算装置:火控中最大量也最重要的测算能量是补偿敌我相对运动的变化。这种相对运动的变化会带来连续的,而往往是非常快速的距离变化与相对方位的变化值,如果是空中目标还要加上高低变化值。从开始瞄准直到弹丸爆炸之间共有两段时间落差—从最初测量到课题解算并传送火炮指令完毕的时间是一段,弹丸在空中的飞行时间又是一段—在这两段时间落差上必须加入敌我相对运动带来的变化,如果不加以预测并改正,弹丸就会错失目标。
It is, of course, possible to compute on paper, for a specific set of conditions, the, correct gun positioning orders in elevation and deflection for any one particular instant. This method is still used for post-firing analysis, but never was of much value in actual practice, as it takes too long and provides no means of continuing the solution to correct original errors or to include further change in the position of the target.
如果下达一套想定,并要求某一组人以书面求算出在某一时间点使用某一火炮射击仰角及回旋指令【以求击中某一目标】是完全可以办得到的。这个纸面计算法到现在还用来做射击后的分析,但是在实战中却没有多大价值,这是因为太花时间了,既不能连续解算修正原始误差,又不能随着目标改变位置而迅速变更计算方向。

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 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-21 22:03:46 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-3-8 12:40 编辑

Early in the twentieth century, an improvement in computation was brought about by graphic plotting. A graphic plot (for a surface target) consists of a series of ranges and bearings of the target, set down on paper, from which it is possible to determine the approximate course and speed of the target. This method provided a valuable supplement to the paper computation, but was soon supplanted by a further refinement, which plots range against time. The advantage of this procedure is that it makes possible the determination of the rate at which range is changing (range rate) and so makes it feasible to predict the range at the end of the time of flight. In practice, the fire of main-battery guns was controlled in this way for a time, but the important contribution of graphic plotting was that it established the basic principle of the mechanical rangekeeper.
二十世纪初,作图法为这些计算工作带来了改进。人们在图纸上标示出一连串目标(水面目标)的距离与方位点,将点连成一线后就可以判定目标的大致航向与航速。这个方法有利于弥补书面计算的不足,不多久又添了另一项改进,那就是将距离点与时间轴对应起来。这个作业方式的好处是可以判定距离变动率(距离变化的程度)从而有效预测弹丸飞行时间结束时的射程。在实用上,有一阵子主炮台火炮射击就是用这种方法控制的,但是作图法的最大贡献还是为机械式射程计算仪建立起基础原理。【见附图4】

【图4从作图测量到机械解算。】

Briefly, this basic principle is that if present range is determined, and if the rate and direction at which range is changing can be computed from the speeds and courses of target and own ship, then the range at a later instant can be determined by computing the change of range for any convenient time interval and adding this change of range to the original value of observed present range, assuming that the range rate remains constant during the period of the computation. This computation can be used to keep the range up to date while the problem is being solved, and to predict for change during the time of flight of the projectile.
简单的说,这个基础原理是假设当前距离为已知,又假设距离变化及走势已由敌我两舰的航向航速所求得,再假设这个距离变动率在计算过程中不变,则只要把任何一刻的距离变化值加上由观测所得的当前距离原始值就可求解出那个时刻的射程。这种计算方式可以使得射程在解算过程中不断更新,并同时预测在弹丸飞行期间的变化。
The most elementary rangekeeper, consequently, has mechanisms for entering observed present range, for determining the range rate, for multiplying the range rate by increments of time, and for accumulating the changes of range. This process is called generating present range. The element of time is supplied by building a clock into the rangekeeper.
因此,最基本的射程计算仪便具有输入观测所得的当前距离值,判定距离变动率,将距离变动率乘上累计时间,以及将距离变化加总的机械结构。这个过程称为生成当前射程。射程计算仪内也连结了一具时钟以加入时间因素。
The same reasoning can be applied to bearing. The observed value of relative bearing becomes the starting point of the computation. The bearing rate (the rate at which bearing is changing) can be computed and multiplied by increments of time, and the resulting increments of bearing can be used to modify the original value of bearing.
同一概念也适用于方位上。观测所得的相对方位值就是计算的起点。方位变动率(方位变化的程度)也可解算及乘上累计时间,最后求出的增加值可以用来修正方位原始值。
Actually, the simplest mechanical rangekeeper ever used by the Navy, the Baby Ford, was designed to perform these three functions: (1) computing range rate, (2) computing bearing rate, and (3) generating present range.
事实上,海军所曾使用过的最简单的机械射程计算仪“娃娃福特“【约在1917-18列装】,就是设计来达成(一)计算距离变动率,(二)计算方位变动率,以及(三)生成当前射程这三项功能的。
Once the fundamental rangekeeper was adopted, the natural course of development was to add mechanical means of adjusting for wind, gun ballistics, and variations from standard initial velocity; to add the third dimension of elevation for air targets, and to generate elevation in AA rangekeepers; to refine the method of correcting initial errors in observed values; and generally to shorten the time required for solution.
一旦基本的射程计算仪被采用后,很自然的发展方向便是为调整风力,弹道,和标准初速变异添加机械装置;为空中目标添加三维计算能量,以对空射程计算仪生成射击仰角;完善因原始观测误差所带来的修正方法;以及努力缩短解算所需的时间。
Corrections for deck motion. A solution for the problem of firing accurately from a rolling and pitching ship did not appear until World War I. This solution depends on the second important adaptation of a childs top-the gyroscope-to Navy use.
甲板摇摆的修正:一直要到第一次世界大战时,解决影响射击精度的船舰横摇与纵摇问题的方法才问世。这个海军在火控解算上所采用的第二重要的发明来自孩子们玩耍的陀螺。
The gyros property of maintaining its spin axis fixed in space was first used on shipboard in the gyrocompass, which always points to true north and is not affected by the magnetic fields of the ship. The gyro compass itself is important in fire control, as it establishes a system of polar coordinates from which the relationship of own ship and target motion to the earth may be determined.
陀螺可以在空间中保持旋转轴的固定位置,船舰上最早使用的陀螺设备是陀螺罗盘,可以不受磁场的影响永远指向真北。陀螺罗盘对火控很重要,因为它可以建立一套极坐标系统来判定敌我运动与地球之间的相关位置。
To correct in fire control for the inclination of the deck caused by the roll and pitch of the ship, the property of gyroscopic rigidity is again used. A gyroscope is so mounted that, as its axis of spin establishes and maintains the true vertical, it makes possible the establishment of a reference plane in the horizontal. The position of the ship with respect to this reference plane is measured and fed into the computer as constantly changing inputs to the problem.
为了要修正火控中因船舰横摇与纵摇所导致的甲板倾斜问题,陀螺的惯性再一次被派上用场。在船上安装一具陀螺仪,旋转它的转轴并保持在直立状态,如此一来便可对应水平面建立一个参考面。测量船舰相对于这个参考面的位置并把它作为持续变化的解算数据输入计算机。【见5

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 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-21 22:04:10 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-1-22 12:28 编辑

Communications systems. Since the equipment and stations comprising a fire control system are widely dispersed for various reasons (visibility, protection, etc.) adequate communications are very important. As fire control installations became more complex and elaborate, the relaying of shouted orders gave way first to rubber hose stretched between stations, then to metal voice tubes; but neither was satisfactory. The first reliable system was the telephone, which has the necessary clarity and flexibility. Sound-powered telephones and interior communications systems make it possible for a control officer to talk to whole groups of men at many stations. Today, communications have become a major factor in the coordination of ship and gun control. A special station for the collection, evaluation, and dissemination of combat information called the Combat Information Center (CIC) has been established to assist the commanding officer in planning a correct course of action, and to assist Command and Fire Control in the execution of that plan. It handles the innumerable transmissions of intelligence within the ship and from outside.
通讯系统:由于种种原因(能见度,防护力等等)火控系统的设备及舱室都很分散,使得通讯变得非常重要。当火控变得愈来愈复杂精细后,呼叫传令的方式先让位给延伸在各舱室之间的橡皮传话管,后来又被金属传话管取代,但这些都不理想。第一个可靠的系统是电话,既清晰又容易配置。声力电话及内部通讯系统使得火控官可以和分散在各舱室的全体组员通话。到今天,通信已成为操船与火控之间协调的重要因素。一个搜集,分析,与发布作战信息的叫作战情中心(CIC)的特别部门被设立起来,以协助指挥官计划正确的作战航线,并协助指挥及火控体系执行此一计划。通讯系统还要处理无数船舰对内对外传送的信息。
In addition to the telephone systems, which are adequate for voice commands, fire control makes great use of a variety of mechanical and electrical means of communicating information from one station to another. These include mechanical shafting, buzzers, light signals, and synchro systems for transmitting gun orders and other quantities that may be represented as angular displacements.
除了处理人声指令的电话系统之外,火控体系还在各部门之间使用大量的机械及电气通讯设备。这些设备包括机械转轴,响铃,灯号,以及同步传递火炮指令及表达角度的系统。

15A6. Director control
15A6. 指挥仪控管  【见上图1,附图6】

【图6典型的现代火控系统构成,反映一个半世纪以来的进步。】

Under the old system of pointer fire, each gun was practically an independent unit. Each gun crew worked out its own sight settings, and except for being told when to commence and when to cease firing, each gun crew fired at will. As fire control and communications improved, it became evident that a single control officer should direct the work of the battery. From his elevated station he could estimate or measure range, could transmit sight settings to the guns, and could observe the fall of shot and estimate corrections known as spots.
在老式的瞄准手射击时代,每一门炮都是各打各的。每一炮班装定自家的瞄准具,从得令开火到受命停火,这中间都是自由射击。当火控与通讯改善后,便顺理成章的由单一的火控官来指挥炮台作业。从挑高的位置它可以分析或测距,可以下达瞄准设定到火炮,更可以观察弹着据以估算落点修正。
It soon became evident that with all guns firing individually it was almost impossible to spot with any accuracy. Buzzers were later used at all the guns to give the signal for firing. This was an improvement, but the guns still went off at various times during the sounding of the buzzer. The next step was the installation of a master firing key in series with the firing circuits of all the guns. When that master key was closed, all ready guns fired.
显而易见的这种各炮一哄而上的方式是没法儿仔细修正落弹的。后来就给各炮安装下达开火令的响铃。这算是一项改进,不过听到响铃后开炮声仍是此起彼落。下一步就是装设一个串联到所有火炮发射线路的总按钮。按下总按钮,所有的火炮就发射了。
The control station soon became much more than a station from which verbal orders were issued. A new instrument called a director was installed there. This was at first a pair of master gun sights that were offset by the necessary lead angles and sighted on the target. The movements of these sights were transmitted electrically to the gun mounts, which duplicated sight motion by matching pointers. Later a director having a built-in analog computer, one part of which became known as a dummy gun," was used. The movements which positioned the dummy gun were transmitted to the mounts, to be followed in elevation and train by matching pointers or, in later installations, by automatic control equipments.
很快的火控室就不仅是限于下达口头命令的部门。一个叫做指挥仪的新仪器被装上舰了。一开始这玩意儿扮演像是“领头炮“的角色,上面装着两具瞄准镜,一具管提前角另一具管瞄准目标。这两具瞄准镜的动作以电气方式传达到各炮位,各炮位再按仪表读数复制瞄准镜的动作。后来有些指挥仪装上模拟式计算器,一部分这种设备被称为“假炮“。假炮的动作被传递到炮位上,各炮位跟随假炮动作的读数转动仰角及方向,在后来的装备上更交给自动控制设备去完成。
The dummy gun idea was eventually given up, but the director remains. It has taken on new functions, such as measuring range, bearing, and elevation, and spotting or otherwise correcting the solution of the problem.
假炮的概念最终被放弃,但指挥仪仍然存在。它承担了新的功能,像是测量距离,方位,俯仰,以及落弹修正和其它解算校正等。
Today the quantities measured at the director are sent to the computer in a protected plotting room below decks. The computer, in addition to solving the fire control problem and transmitting the gun orders to the gun, also sends signals to the director to keep the sights positioned on the target if the solution is correct. If the solution should be in error, some director systems are provided with devices whereby discrepancies between the ordered positioning rates of the director and the actual rates of the target can be measured and introduced as corrections to the computers solution. This procedure is known as rate control.
如今指挥仪测量的数据被传送到甲板下受保护的绘图室内的计算器。计算器除了解算火控课题及传输火炮指令外,还要传送控制信号到指挥仪,只要解算正确,会转动指挥仪瞄准镜对准目标。如果解算有误差,某些指挥仪系统装置可将目标位置实际变动率与解算变动率之间的误差加以测量并回传给计算器改正解算值。这个过程称为变动率控制。

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 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-21 22:04:35 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-1-22 12:29 编辑

15A7. Spotting the fall of shot
15A7. 落弹观测修正
As battle ranges have increased, increasing importance has been assumed by spotting, or observation of the actual fall of shot. Optical spotting was found to be inadequate at long range, even from the highest station on the ship. Kite balloons were tried in World War i, but proved to restrict ship maneuvers too greatly. Spotting planes were found effective for spotting in range, but not in deflection. Radar has proved to be the best means to date for spotting, as it is almost perfect in range and reasonably accurate in deflection.
随着作战距离拉大,落弹修正,或者说实际落弹点的观察也愈发重要。但即使在舰上的最高点,目视观察对更远的距离也不管用。第一次世界大战曾使用系留气球,但是已证明会大大限制船舰的机动。观察飞机对观察距离有用,但判定方位却不灵光。目前雷达已公认是最好的落弹观测修正工具,它在距离判定上几近完美,在方位精度上也差强人意。

15A8. Flexibility of control
15A8. 火控的灵活运用
Today, gunfire is almost independent of ship maneuvers, and is not, as in the past, limited by tactics. By providing duplicate control and computing stations, batteries can be divided to cover several targets at once or may all be directed at the same target. Further, the destruction of any one station does not make it impossible for the battery to continue its fire.
时至今日,舰炮射击已几乎完全不受船舰机动的影响,也不像过去一样受会限于战术。赋予双重的控制及计算部门后,炮台组可以一次分别对付一个以上目标或集中对付同一个目标。再者,任何其中一套设备遭到摧毁后,炮台也不至于不能继续射击。

15A9. Aircraft fire control
15A9. 飞机火控
Within the memory of many living men, the airplane has developed from an amusing and improbable experiment to the point that the air arm has achieved full parity with the Army and the Navy, and within the Navy itself it has become virtually axiomatic that command of the air over the sea is requisite to the control of the sea.
曾几何时,飞机已经从娱乐和实验发展成与海陆军并驾齐驱的军种,而且将制空当作是制海的先决条件已几乎变成美国海军的通则。
The carrier provides a floating base for tactical aircraft, making it possible, within the limited range of fighter planes and bombers of suitable size, to employ them tactically in naval battle with the fighting ships themselves completely hidden from each other over the horizon, as was the case in the battles of the Coral Sea and Midway in World War II, or to give tactical support to troops and to maul supply lines far inland, as was proved by the Korean conflict.
航母作为战术飞机的浮动基地,已使得在战术上将舰艇隐藏在海天线之外派遣歼击机和轰炸机进行海战变为可行,就如同二战时期的珊瑚海和中途岛海战一样,或者将火力支持和补给线强制推进至内陆,如同在朝鲜战争时期一样。
As aircraft have become heavier and faster, the variety of weapons carried has increased, comprising guns, bombs, rockets, and torpedoes. Development of aircraft capabilities has caused a corresponding evolution of fire control instruments, as solution time for the problem has become shorter. Individual gun sights and bombsights are being displaced progressively by complete fire control systems. Some of these will be discussed in detail in a later chapter of the present book.
随着飞机愈来愈大也愈来愈快,它所装载的武器也愈来愈多样化,包括枪炮,炸弹,火箭及鱼雷。飞机能力的发展也导致火控设备的相应进化,如解算时间的缩短等。目前使用的各式机炮及轰炸瞄准具都具有先进的火控系统。某些系统将在本书后面的章节里详述。

【附图取自美海军50年代水兵基础火控教育手册,非海军官校火控教本原图,配合本章较富说明效果。】

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 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-21 22:04:54 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-1-22 12:30 编辑

B. Modern Fire Control Systems
B. 现代火控系统  【见上图6】

15B1. Batteries
15B1. 炮台组
For a long period, the batteries of a single ship frequently consisted of guns of various sizes. Because of the difficulty of controlling and spotting the fire of so many batteries, the practice of using guns of the same size and ballistic characteristics in a given battery was adopted. This practice also resulted in a simplified system of supply for ammunition and replacement parts.
有很长一段时间,一条船上的炮台组是由大小不同的火炮组成的。由于控管与修正多个炮台组相当困难,后来便采用同一炮台使用统一口径及弹道性能火炮的方式。这种方式也简化了弹药与修配件的补给。
The size and number of guns in a battery depends upon the type of ship. Batteries are generally referred to as:
炮台的火炮口径及数量因舰种而不同。炮台组可大致分为:
Main battery. The guns of the largest caliber aboard a ship. The term is sometimes extended to indicate the weapon of greatest potential effect. For example, the main battery of an aircraft carrier is its planes; of a submarine, its torpedoes; of certain landing craft, the rocket battery.
主炮台:舰上最大口径的火炮群。这个名词有时也延伸意指威力最强的武器。例如,航母的主炮台就是飞机;潜舰的主炮台是鱼雷;某种登陆舰的主炮台是火箭发射器。
Dual-purpose battery. Guns which are adaptable for use against either aircraft or surface targets. In ships which have a single-purpose main battery, the dual-purpose battery may be called the secondary battery. Many other ships have a dual-purpose main battery.
两用炮台:可以对空及对海两用的火炮。在配备单一用途主炮台的舰只上,两用炮台也可称作副炮台。许多舰种只有两用炮台作为主炮台。
Machine-gun battery. Permanently emplaced automatic weapons of all calibers, used chiefly against aircraft.
机关炮台:固定装设的各种口径自动武器,主要用来打飞机。

舰种级别与火炮:                           主炮台            两用炮台           机关炮台


Some typical examples of combatant ship gun batteries are shown in Figures 15B1 and 15B2.
下图15B115B2显示数种战斗舰艇的炮台组形式。

导弹巡洋舰火控设备:舰岛由前往后为8寸炮MK34指挥仪;5寸炮MK37指挥仪;对海搜索雷达;高度测定雷达;对空搜索雷达;目标标定信息雷达;MK25 TERRIER导弹制导雷达设备;TERRIER导弹发射器。右舷是三座MK56防空指挥仪。


萨勒姆级巡洋舰火力配置:沿中线由前往后为13寸炮座;23寸炮座;主炮组1号炮塔;主炮组2号炮塔;15寸炮座;前副指挥仪;前主指挥仪;后主指挥仪;后副指挥仪;65寸炮座;主炮组3号炮塔;舰尾11123寸炮座。沿右舷由前往后为20毫米炮座;35寸炮座;353寸炮座;右舷副指挥仪;793寸炮座;55寸炮座;及20毫米炮座。左舷同右舷由前往后对称配置。

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 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-21 22:05:21 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-1-22 12:32 编辑

15B2. Fire control systems
火控系统
The exact composition and arrangement of a ships fire control system depends upon such factors as the type of ship and the size, number, purpose, and effective range of its guns. In general, fire control systems have the following characteristics:
舰艇上火控系统的具体组合及配置因舰种,口径,数量,用途,以及火炮效力范围等因素而有所不同。
1. The primary method of fire is director fire. When the number and arrangement of guns in a battery permits, the battery may be controlled from one station, or the fire may be divided and controlled from several points against multiple targets.
1. 指挥仪射击是主要射击法。只要火炮数量及配置情形许可,炮台可交由某一火控部门控管,或分别由多个部门控管以对付多重目标。
2. Provision is made for observations to establish present target position and to spot the fall of shot.
2. 提供建立当前目标位置及修正落弹的观测作业。
3. Computers figure the predicted position of the target, the ballistic corrections, and corrections to compensate for roll and pitch of the ship. These data are used to compute gun orders in train and elevation which are transmitted to the guns.
3. 计算器估算目标预测位置,弹道修正值,和补偿船只横摇纵摇的修正值。这些数据经过计算后成为俯仰和回旋指令传输给火炮的。
4. Gun orders keep the guns constantly positioned in space, ready to fire whenever the firing key is closed.
4. 依据火炮指令将火炮保持就定位状态,等待射击按钮按下便立即发射。
5. Provision is made for stand-by methods of control if the primary method is inoperative.
5. 提供待命控管方式以便主控方式一旦失效立即顶上。
6. Efficient communications are provided, with duplicate systems for transmitting information.
6. 重叠的信息传输系统保持通信在有效状态。
7. Provision is made for control of the battery at night, including the control of star shells and searchlights.
7. 提供夜间炮台火控,包括照明弹和探照灯的控管。

15B3. Battleship systems
15B3. 战列舰系统
On a modern battleship, the two primary main-battery directors are the highest on the ship, the forward one being about 120 feet above the waterline, the after one about 75 feet. Either director, together with equipment in the plotting rooms, can control all or part of the main battery. Also, any one of the four secondary-battery directors can be used to control all or part of the main battery. In addition, equipment in each turret permits individual, but less effective, control of the turrets independently of the directors and plotting rooms. Five optical rangefinders, one in each main-battery director and in each turret, provide main-battery ranges. Fire control radars in the fire control tower and in each main-battery director provide radar range (and bearing) for the main battery.
在现代战列舰上,两座主要主炮台指挥仪位于全舰最高处,前面的一座高出水线120英尺,后面一座高出75英尺。每一座指挥仪,包括绘图室内的设备,可以控管全部或部分主炮台。同样的,四座副炮台指挥仪也可以用来控管全部或部分主炮台。除此之外,每一座炮塔安装的设备可以独立于指挥仪及绘图室之外控管本身炮塔,不过效力较差。每座主炮台指挥仪及主炮塔各装有一具光学测距仪为主炮台提供距离。射击指挥塔楼和每一座主炮台指挥仪上都装置有为主炮台提供距离(及方位)的雷达。
Below the waterline are the forward and after plotting rooms, each of which contains rangekeepers, stable verticals, graphic rangekeeping devices, switchboards, and other instruments. Information is received in plot from the radars, rangefinders, and directors, and is combined with other information obtained from various sources. Computed quantities are transmitted to the guns for their control. Either plotting room may control any part of the battery. Auxiliary computing equipment is provided in each of the three turrets, so that each may fire independently.
前后绘图室位在水线之下,每一间都配备有射程计算仪,垂直稳定仪,射程绘图计算设备,信号交换机及其它仪器。绘图室接收自雷达,光学测距仪及指挥仪传来的信息,同时综合从其它不同来源获得的信息。解算后的数据传输到炮位供操炮用。每一座绘图室可控管炮台内任一炮塔。三座炮塔内都装备有辅助计算设备,所以每座都可以独立射击。【只有衣阿华级有两间绘图室,北卡级南达级绘图室则装有二套主炮火控设备。】
The secondary battery has four directors, each of which has its own rangefinder and radar, and may control all or any part of the dual-purpose battery. There are two secondary (dual-purpose) battery plotting rooms similar to those of the main battery, except that they contain no graphic plotting devices. Each is equipped with two computers, two stable elements, the necessary indicating instruments, and switching equipment. With director controlled fire it is possible to engage four secondary battery targets simultaneously with independent illumination control.
副炮台共有四座指挥仪,每一座都有自己的光学测距仪及雷达,可以控管全部或部分两用炮台。副炮台(两用)绘图室有两间,与主炮台的相似,只少了绘图设备。每间配备两具计算器,两具稳定器,必要的指示仪器,以及信号交换设备。使用指挥仪控管可同时接战四组副炮台目标并独立控管各自的照明弹及探照灯。【只有衣阿华级有两间绘图室,北卡级南达级绘图室则装有四套副炮火控设备。】
The heavy machine-gun battery is equipped with a separate director and fire control system for each of its mounts. Many of the directors are equipped with radar. Decentralized control permits firing at many targets at once, and facilitates target acquisition. Flexibility of control is provided by cross connections permitting the heavy machine-gun directors to control the adjacent dual-purpose mounts, and the secondary-battery directors to control the heavy machine-gun mounts.
重机关炮台配备有分离的指挥仪及火控系统。许多这类指挥仪配备有雷达。分散式的火控可同时追踪及射击多个目标。经由系统交连,重机关炮与两用炮火控可相互灵活支援,重机关炮台指挥仪可控管邻近的两用炮座,而副炮台指挥仪也可控管重机关炮座。
The light machine guns (20-mm) are equipped with individual lead-computing sights.
轻机关炮(20毫米)配备有自身的提前量计算瞄准具。

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 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-21 22:05:50 | 显示全部楼层
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15B4. Cruiser and destroyer systems
15B4. 巡洋舰与驱逐舰系统
Cruisers have fire control installations similar to those of battleships, except that there are only two directors for the dual-purpose battery (i.e., the secondary battery on cruisers with turrets; the main battery on AA cruisers). Figure 15B1shows the fire control installations on a guided missile cruiser,
巡洋舰火控装置与战列舰相似,不过只有两座两用炮台指挥仪(在有主炮台的巡洋舰上供副炮台用,在防空巡洋舰上供主炮台用。)15B1显示导弹巡洋舰的火控装置。只有阿拉斯加级萨勒姆级有两间绘图室。只有萨勒姆级有四座两用炮台指挥仪,见图15B2。】
NOTE: Radar has replaced the optical rangefinders in the turrets of some of the later cruisers.
原注:在某些较新的巡洋舰上雷达已取代了光学测距仪。
U.S.S. Boston (CAG-l). On guided missile cruisers of this class, the after 8-inch triple turret and the after 5-inch twin gun mount have been replaced by two twin Terrier missile launchers.
波士顿号(CAG-l)。在这一级导弹巡洋舰上,舰尾的三连装8寸炮塔及连装5寸炮座已被两座Terrier飞弹发射器取代。
Destroyers have only one director and one plotting room for the dual-purpose (main) battery. The control of dual-purpose and machine-gun batteries on cruisers and destroyers is similar to that on battleships, but they can engage a smaller number of targets simultaneously, because of the smaller number of guns and directors.
驱逐舰只有一座两用(主)炮台指挥仪及一间绘图室。巡洋舰及驱逐舰上的两用炮和机关炮炮台火控与战列舰相似,不过因为火炮及指挥仪的数量少,所以能同时接敌的数量也少。

15B5. The fire control problem
火控课题
The principal subject of the next several chapters is the fire control problem. This term has come to mean the entire series of measurements and computations used in the control of weapons, beginning with the designation of the target and the type of fire, and ending with the destruction of the target. For all batteries, the problem of gun fire control is solved in five steps:
后面几个章节要讨论的主题是火控课题。这个用词意指用在武器控管上的全套测量和计算过程,从标定目标及射击方式开始,到目标摧毁为止。所有炮台组的火控课题都有五个解算步骤:
1. Establishing the present position of the target. The first step in the solution of the problem is to establish the present position of the target with relation to the ship by measuring its range, bearing, and, for air targets, elevation.
1. 建立当前目标位置:火控解算的第一步骤是通过测量距离,方位,和对空目标的仰角来建立敌我之间目前的相对位置。
2. Computing lead angle. Lead angles in elevation (called sight angle) and in bearing (called sight deflection) are computed to allow for wind, gun ballistics, and relative motion of own ship and target during the time of flight of the projectile. This is the principal function of all rangekeepers and computers.
2. 计算提前角:计算仰角的提前角(称为瞄准角)和方位的提前角(称为瞄准偏移角)时要考虑风力,火炮弹道,以及弹丸飞行期间敌我的相对运动。这是所有射程计算仪的主要功能。
3. Correcting for motion of gun platform. Corrections are computed to counteract the effect of the constant rolling and pitching of the ship.
3. 修正火炮平台的摇摆因素:计算如何抵消船舰不断横摇与纵摆的影响。
4. Making up gun orders. Since the guns are so mounted that they can move only in train and elevation, all the foregoing information is converted into gun positioning orders, and is constantly corrected, so that the guns are continuously positioned for firing.
4. 解算火炮指令:由于火炮装置只能作方向旋回与高低俯仰的动作,所有前述信息要转化成火炮操作定位指令,而且还要不断的修正以使火炮能随时处于正确发射位置。
5. Correcting fall of shot. In case of inaccuracy of computation, the projectiles may fail to hit the target. Errors are determined by observation and are corrected by the application of corrections known as spots.
5. 修正弹丸落点:如果计算不够准确,弹丸会错失击中目标。误差必须通过观测来判定并据以实施修正。

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15B6. Presentation of the fire control problem
15B6. 火控课题的表述
The fundamental considerations in the solution of the fire control problem are the same for both surface and air targets. Since the surface problem is less complicated, it is considered in this text before the air problem.
对水面和对空中的火控解算基本上要考虑的课题是一样的。由于对水面的课题较不复杂,所以本书将先于对空课题讨论。
It should be clearly understood that the emphasis in this text is upon principles, rather than upon details of specific installations. Descriptions of specific equipment are limited to the most commonly used examples of each type. Further information is to be found in the publications of the Bureau of Ordnance.
此地要声明在先,本书所表述的只是原则性的,而非针对特定装置的细部说明。特定设备的说明也只限于最通常的范例。更详细的信息要看兵器局的出版物。
Methods of use are subject to change; consequently, this publication describes procedures only as illustrations of the capabilities of the equipment. The practicing gunnery officer is referred to fleet publications of most recent date for guidance in this respect.
这里引介的方法也是会变更的;因此,本书所描述的过程也仅限于所列出装备的能力大概。在职炮术官应本此原则参照最新的舰队部发行的书表。
It is emphasized that the student is expected to receive only an introduction to fire control in this text. The expert gunnery officer is made by constant experience and by the detailed study of all fire control gear with which he is associated, particularly that on his own ship.
本书宗旨在于对学员提供火控简介。炮术官专业必须通过不断汲取经验以及细心学习舰上所有火控相关设备才能过关。

15B7. Symbols and definitions
15B7. 符号及定义
Fire control has developed its own language, and the study of the subject requires familiarity with the definitions and symbols of which this language is composed. Gunnery definitions, as standardized by the Fleet Training and Readiness Branch of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations may be found in appendix E. They are adequate for general use, but their application varies somewhat among different fire control systems. The Bureau of Ordnance has established standard fire control and torpedo control symbols of a more restricted nature, the most useful of which are to be found in appendix F. Fire control symbols and nomenclature, as used in the sections of this book not limited to specific equipment, have been prepared to agree with the most recent current practice. It should be noted that symbols and nomenclature are subject to modification for individual equipments, and that all symbols, nomenclature, and definitions are subject to change by the Bureau of Ordnance and the Chief of Naval Operations. Throughout this text, symbols and definitions occur as required by the subject matter. In some cases the standard definitions have been paraphrased to make them easier to understand.
火控已发展出一套自身的语言,要学好它必须熟悉构成这套语言的符号及定义。经过海军作战总署舰队训练作战处加以标准化的炮术定义可以参照附件E。这些定义足以应付一般运用,但是在不同火控系统间会有一些差异。兵器局已对火控及鱼雷火控建立起一套较严格定性的标准符号,最常用的部分可以参照附件F
本书各章节所使用火控符号及专用名词可适用于最新的设施,且不限于特定装备。要注意符号及专用名词运用到个别装备时可能会有所修改,所有符号,专用名词和定义的变更都要遵照兵器局及海军作战署的指示。全书中符号及定义的出现都与主题相关。某些情况下标准定义会加以改写以利于理解。

【火控导论全章完】

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Appendix E
附录E


FIRE CONTROL DEFINITIONS
火力控管定义


E1. GENERAL DEFINITIONS
E1. 通用定义


GUN-TARGET (GT) LINE is the line joining a ship delivering gunfire support and the target.
炮目线  火力支援舰与目标之间的连接线。

OBSERVER-TARGET (OT) LINE is the line joining the naval gunfire shore spotter and the target.
观目线 海军陆轰登岸观察员与目标之间的连接线。

The HORIZONTAL is a plane tangent to the earth’s surface or parallel to such a plane.
水平面 地球表面的切线,或与此面平行的面。

A VERTICAL PLANE is a plane perpendicular to the horizontal. It may pass through any designated line or point.
垂直面 与水平面成直角的面,可通过水平面上任何一点或线。

A TRAVERSE PLANE is a plane determined by a point of aim and the elevation axis of the sight.
炮口旋转面 由瞄准点与瞄准镜视轴俯仰角所构成的平面。

The REFERENCE PLANE for a battery is an arbitrarily chosen plane, usually within the ship, from which angles of elevation of all battery elements are measured. In practice, it may be the plane containing one of the battery roller paths, or it may be an imaginary plane.
参考面 炮台的参考面可以是舰上任一选定的平面,以此面订出所有炮台单位与它之间的角度高低差。实务上可以是火炮转盘的平面,也可以是一个想象的平面。

LEVEL ANGLE is the inclination of the battery reference plane with the horizontal, measured in a plane that contains the line of sight. The latter plane may be either the vertical or a plane perpendicular to the reference plane, depending on the design of the control equipment.
纵轴水平角 炮台参考面与水平面之间的倾斜角度,以含瞄准线的平面为基准量取。(待定)

CROSSLEVEL ANGLE is the inclination of the battery reference plane with the horizontal, usually measured in a plane perpendicular to the plane in which level is measured. The latter plane may be either the vertical or a plane perpendicular to the reference plane, depending on the design of the control equipment.
横轴水平角 炮台参考面与水平面之间的倾斜角度,以与测量纵轴水平角的平面成直角的平面为基准量取。(待定)

TRUNNION TILT is the instantaneous inclination of the axis of the trunnions to the horizontal.
炮耳倾斜 火炮俯仰轴线与水平面之间的倾角。

ROLL is the instantaneous value of the angle between the reference plane and the horizontal, measured in an athwartship vertical plane.
横摇 以从左到右通过舰身的垂直面,量度参考面与水平面之间所形成的即时角度。

PITCH is the instantaneous value of the angle between the reference plane and the horizontal, measured in a fore-and-aft vertical plane.
纵摆 以从头到尾通过舰身的垂直面,量度参考面与水平面之间所形成的即时角度。

Note: For purposes of naval gunnery both roll and pitch are measured and recorded as rates; that is, in terms of amplitude per unit time, ordinarily as total degrees of roll (or pitch) per minute.
注:为海军炮术的需要,横摇纵摆都以速率方式测量与记录;也就是以单位时间内变化的程度,通常以每分钟总共摇摆多少角度来表示。

STABILIZATION is the technique of correcting for deck inclination.
稳定法 修正甲板倾斜角的技术。

POINT OF AIM is that point on a target at which the sight is directed.
瞄准点 瞄准镜所指向的目标上的一点。

LINE OF SIGHT (LOS) is the straight line joining the sight and the point of aim.
瞄准线 瞄准镜与被瞄准点之间的连接直线。

AXIS OF THE BORE is the extension of the axis of the gun bore. It is tangent, at the muzzle, to the trajectory of a projectile fired from the gun.
膛心线 火炮炮膛轴心的延长线。从炮口看是弹丸弹道弧线的切线。

LINE OF FIRE (LOF) is the straight line joining the gun and the point of impact (or burst) of the projectile. As used in safety precautions for target practices, the line of fire is assumed to include all points near the bearing of the line of fire.
射击线 火炮与弹丸落点(或炸点)之间的直线连接线。练习打靶时为安全防护起见,射击线还包括所有邻近的方位。

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TARGET ANGLE is the relative bearing of own ship from the target, measured in the horizontal from the bow of the target clockwise from 0 degrees to 360 degrees.
目标角 目标与本舰之间的相对方位角,以目标舰舰首为准沿水平面从0360度顺时针测量。

POSITION ANGLE is the vertical angle between the horizontal and the line of sight to an elevated target.
位置角 水平面与对准仰起目标的瞄准线之间的垂直夹角。

RELATIVE TARGET BEARING is the bearing of the target from the firing ship measured in the horizontal plane from the bow of own ship clockwise from 0 degrees to 360 degrees.
目标相对方位 射击舰与目标之间的方位角,以本舰舰首为准沿水平面从0360度顺时针测量。

TRUE TARGET BEARING is the true bearing of the target from the firing ship.
目标真方位 以射击舰为准的目标罗盘方位。

GENERATED TARGET BEARING (RELATIVE or TRUE) is the relative or true bearing of the target as determined in a computing instrument from previous positions of own ship and target and established rate of change of bearing.
生成的目标方位(相对的或罗盘的) 根据先前已舰与目标位置以及已知方位变动率由计算器推估的目标相对方位或罗盘方位。

WIND DIRECTION is the direction from which the wind is blowing.
风向 风吹来的方向。

TRUE WIND is the wind as it exists with respect to the earth and independent of any motion of the ship.
真风 原本就存在于地球上而与船舰运动不相干的风。

APPARENT WIND is the wind apparent at the observing station, and is the resultant of the true wind and the motion of the observing station.
视风 观察站所感测到的风,由真风加上观察站的运动所构成的风。


PARALLAX is the angular difference which results from making observations or computations to one target from two different stations. Train, or horizontal, parallax is the angular difference measured in the horizontal plane. Elevation, or vertical, parallax is the angular difference measured in the vertical plane.
位差 两个不同测站对同一目标测算所产生的角度差异。由水平面量取的角度差称为回旋或水平位差,由垂直面量取的角度差称为俯仰或高低位差。

BEARING RATE is the rate of change of target bearing from own ship caused by the relative motion of own ship and target. It may be expressed in knots (linear measure) or in degrees per minute (angular measure).
方位变动率 由目标与本舰相对运动所导致的目标方位变化程度。可用每分钟多少节(直线量取)或多少度(角度量取)来表示。

RANGE RATE is the rate of change of range in yards per minute caused by relative motion of own ship and target.
距离变动率 以每分钟多少码来表示的由目标与本舰相对运动所导致的双方距离变化程度。

ELEVATION RATE is the rate of change of target elevation (position angle) in degrees per minute.
俯仰变动率 以每分钟多少角度来表示的目标高低(定起角)的变化程度。

ANGLE OF CLIMB or Dive is the vertical angle between the horizontal and the direction of motion of the target measured in degrees at the target.
爬升角或俯冲角 目标移动方向与水平面所形成的垂直夹角,以角度量取。


RATE OF CLIMB is the rate of change of altitude measured in feet per minute or in knots.
爬升率 以每分钟多少节来表示的高度变动率。

LOADING DEAD TIME is the time between the instant a projectile is removed from the fuze pot and the instant of firing that projectile. For practical purposes, when firing mechanical-time-fuzed projectiles, the average loading dead time of the battery is the dead time for which correction must be made.
装填空耗时间 从信管测合机取出弹丸到弹丸发射出膛为止所经过的时间。每当发射机械定时信管弹丸时,必须把平均装填空耗时间加上去以符合实际应用。

SIGHT ANGLE is the vertical component of the angle between the line of sight and the axis of the bore.
瞄准角 瞄准线与膛心线之间的垂直夹角。

GUN ELEVATION is the vertical angle between the horizontal plane and the axis of the bore.
火炮俯仰角 水平面与膛心线之间的垂直夹角。

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A MIL is a unit of angular measurement. It is equal to the angle whose tangent is 1/1,000, and is equivalent to 3.44 minutes or 3 minutes 26 seconds of arc. (The Army defines MIL as the angle subtended by an arc equal to 1/6,400th part of the circumference of a circle.)
密位 一种量角单位。相等于弧度3.44分或326秒。(陆军定义为对应于圆周1/6400弦段的角度。)

AZIMUTH is the angle in mils (Army definition) measured from grid north to the OT line.
方位角 以(陆军定义)密位来表示的从方格北到观目线之间的夹角。

GUN TRAIN ORDER is the signal transmitted to the guns indicating the angle in the reference plane from own ships bow clockwise to the perpendicular plane through the axis of the bore.
火炮回旋指令 

GUN ELEVATION ORDER is the signal transmitted to the gun indicating the gun elevation above the deck plane measured in a plane through the bore axis perpendicular to the deck plane.
火炮俯仰指令 

RANGE is the distance from a station on own ship to the target or some other designated point.
射距 从本舰测站到目标或其它指定点之间的长度。

SLANT RANGE is the distance to an aerial point or target.
斜距 从本舰测站到空中某点或目标之间的长度。

HORIZONTAL RANGE is the horizontal component of slant range.
水平距离 斜距在水平面的长度。

ALTITUDE is the vertical component of slant range. (Since this definition disregards the curvature of the earth, it should not be applied beyond the limits of present gun fire control systems.)
高度 斜距在垂直面的长度。(由于此定义不考虑地球曲面,故仅适用于当代火控系统。)

PRESENT RANGE is the best available measurement of the range to the target.
目前射距 当下能量取的最佳目标距离。

ADVANCE RANGE is present range combined with the corrections and predictions necessary to compensate for own-ship and target motion during the time of flight, plus ballistic corrections and spots.
提前射距 目前射距加上对弹丸飞行期间目标移动的补偿,再加上弹道修正等的预测修正值。

GUN RANGE is the range listed in the range table corresponding to gun elevation.
火炮射距 射表上对应于火炮仰角的距离。

HITTING GUN RANGE is gun range corrected for the error of MPI.
命中火炮射距 根据平均弹着点修正偏差后的火炮距离。

NAVIGATIONAL RANGE is the best distance to the target, used in post-firing analysis.
航海射距 发射后用来分析的最佳目标距离。

BALLISTIC CORRECTIONS are corrections in range and/or deflection to compensate for known or predicted errors, for drift, for wind, and for all variations from standard range-table conditions.
弹道修正 根据已知或预测的偏差,如偏流,风偏,以及标准射表状况下的所有变量,在距离及/或方向上所作出的修正。

INITIAL BALLISTIC CORRECTION is that part of the ballistic corrections not automatically compensated for by the fire control system.
初始弹道修正 不被火控系统自动补偿的弹道修正部分。

ARBITRARY BALLISTIC CORRECTION is an empirical correction in range or deflection to compensate for all indeterminate errors in the fire control problem. It is obtained from an analysis of previous firings. This is commonly referred to as ACTH (arbitrary correction to hit).
临机弹道修正 根据经验对火控解算中未定的偏差在距离或方向上所作出的修正。对先前射击的分析可获取这个修正值。通常被称作ACTH命中。

CONTROL BALLISTIC CORRECTIONS consist of the correction to the gun range and deflection to obtain the sight scale range and deflection.
操控弹道修正

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BALLISTIC WIND is the effective wind, determined by computation, of such force and direction that its action on the projectile during the time of flight will be the same as the combined actions produced by the various true winds acting in the strata through which the projectile will pass as it moves along its trajectory.
弹道风

BALLISTIC RANGE WIND is the horizontal component of the ballistic wind parallel to the target bearing.
弹道纵风 与目标方位成平行的弹道风。


BALLISTIC CROSS WIND is the horizontal component of the ballistic wind at right angles to the target bearing.
弹道横风 与目标方位成直角的弹道风。

BALLISTIC DENSITY is the single air density, determined by computation, which would have the same range effect on the projectile as the actual densities throughout the trajectory.
弹道密度 由计算法所求取的单一空气密度,对弹头射距的影响和实际密度变化影响大体一致。

SUPERELEVATION is the angle the gun must be elevated above the line of sight to compensate for the curvature of the trajectory caused by the force of gravity acting on the projectile.
仰角提升值 根据地心引力对弹丸施加的作用,在瞄准线角度上再提升一定角度以补偿弹道曲率的值。

DEFLECTION is the lateral angular correction (converted to the deck plane where necessary) which is applied to the target bearing in the deck plane to obtain gun train order.
方向移转量

INITIAL VELOCITY is the velocity of the projectile at the instant the projectile leaves the gun.
初速 弹丸飞离炮口瞬间的速率。

NOMINAL INITIAL VELOCITY is the initial velocity assigned a new gun with the propellant at a temperature of 90° F.
名目初速 新造炮使用药温90华氏度射药所赋予的初速。

RANGE-TABLE INITIAL VELOCITY is the initial velocity for which the range table is computed.
射表初速 计算射表时所使用的初速。
 
A SALVO consists of one shot or several shots fired simultaneously or nearly so by the same battery at the same target.
齐射;排炮 同一炮台组在同时或几乎同时间对同一目标所发射的一发或多发射弹。


THE PATTERN of a salvo in range is the distance measured parallel to the line of fire between the shot of the salvo falling or bursting at the greatest distance from the firing point and the shot falling or bursting at the shortest distance, excluding wild shots. In deflection it is the distance measured at right angles to the line of fire between the shot falling or bursting at the greatest distance to the right and the shot falling or bursting at the greatest distance to the left, excluding wild shots.
样态 一群齐射弹的弹着或炸点的分布样态可分为射距和射向两种。但计算时要排除不规弹。射距样态是指平行于射击线最远的一发与最近的一发的距离差,射向样态是指的最偏右的一发与最偏左的一发与射击线成直角的距离差。

THE MEAN POINT OF IMPACT (MPI) is the origin of a set of rectangular coordinates so located that the algebraic sums of the distances of the several impacts from the three axes are each equal to zero.
平均弹着点 是一组矩形坐标的原点;上下左右前后三轴许多弹着点到原点的几何距离总和为零。

The DISPERSION of a shot is the distance of the point of impact of that shot from the MPI of the salvo. Dispersion in range is measured parallel to the line of fire, and in deflection at right angles to the line of fire in a horizontal plane.
散布 齐射弹平均弹着点与其中一发射弹弹着点之间的远近。射距散布是与射击线平行测取,射向散布是与射击线成直角测取。

THE APPARENT MEAN DISPERSION of a salvo in range (or deflection) is the arithmetical average of the dispersion in range (or deflection) of the several shots of the salvo, excluding wild shots.
可视平均散布 一群齐射弹的射距(或射向)散布是数群齐射弹的射距(或射向)散布的算术平均值。


ERROR OF THE MEAN POINT OF IMPACT is the distance of the MPI from the target or other reference point, measured parallel to the line of fire for range and at right angles to the line of fire for deflection.
平均弹着点误差 平均弹着点与目标或其它参考点之间的距离以平行及直角量取的误差值。

上将

八年服役纪念章功勋勋章钻石金双剑金橡叶铁十字勋章行政立法委骑士团勋章政道纪念章旗手终身荣誉会员

 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-21 23:33:43 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-1-22 16:42 编辑

A STRADDLE is obtained from a salvo in range (or deflection) when, excluding wild shots, a portion of the shots of that salvo fall or detonate short and other shots of the salvo beyond the target (right and left, respectively, for deflection). (In naval gunfire support this may be known as a BRACKETING SALVO.)
夹中;跨射 一群齐射弹在排除不规弹后,弹着或炸点在射距上部分超过目标落在较远处;部分不及目标落在较近处(在射向上部分落在目标偏左处;部分落在目标偏右处)。(海军陆轰火力支持管这种情形叫包夹齐射。)

A BRACKET is a succession of two salvos, one over and one short, or one right and one left, with no straddles.
夹叉;包夹 前后接连两群齐射,一群较远一群较近,或一群偏左一群偏右,但没有发生跨射。

A WILD SHOT is a shot with an abnormally large dispersion in range, or, in deflection, or in both.
不规弹 一发射弹在射距或射向上或两者同时发生特大不正常散布的情形。

THE DANGER SPACE for a material target is the distance in front of the target, measured parallel to the line of fire, that the target could be moved toward the firing point, so that a shot striking the base of the target in its original position would strike the top of the target in its new position.
危险界 在弹道不变的射击线前放一具体目标,将目标向射击点移动,平行量取目标底端被击中的位置到顶端被击中的位置;这两段之间就是危险界。

THE Hitting SPACE for a material target is the distance measured parallel to the line of fire between a shot striking the top of the target and one striking the waterline on the engaged side of the target.
命中界 在弹道可变的射击线前放一具立体目标,将目标射击线固定不动,调整弹道量取目标底端被击中的位置到顶端被击中的位置;这两点之间就是命中界。

上将

八年服役纪念章功勋勋章钻石金双剑金橡叶铁十字勋章行政立法委骑士团勋章政道纪念章旗手终身荣誉会员

 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-21 23:33:59 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-1-22 17:19 编辑

以下大部份已停工年余,希望有同好再接再厉。共襄盛举。


E2. CONTROL is authority, less than full command, exercised over the armament or a portion thereof.

A. SUPERVISORY CONTROL is the direction of the over-all employment of the vessels armament. It is concerned with the disposition of the batteries to best meet existing conditions, the interior communications plan to be used, the selection and designation of targets for batteries or groups thereof, and the designation of standard procedure to be employed. Supervisory control is exercised by the Gunnery Officer, assisted by his Battery Officers, and by CIC Liaison Officers.

B. BATTERY CONTROL is the direction of the employment of all the mounts or turrets of a similar caliber or purpose in a vessel. It is concerned with the disposition of the mounts or turrets with respect to the fire control stations of the battery, the interior communications plan to be used, the designation and acquisition of targets by the battery or group, and the standard procedures to be employed. The Battery Control Officer is assisted by Group and Sector Control Officers, and by CIC Liaison Officers.

1. BATTERY CONTROL is classified as to TYPE by the manner in which the command of the battery is exercised.

a. COLLECTIVE BATTERY CONTROL is that type of battery control in which the direction of the employment of the battery is centralized. (This type of control may leave a primary director unemployed, and the latter will be considered in STAND-BY CONTROL.)

b. DISPERSED BATTERY CONTROL is that type of battery control in which the direction of the employment is decentralized.

(1) DIVIDED BATTERY CONTROL is that form of dispersed control wherein a battery with two directors is divided into forward and after batteries for command purposes. This form of control is associated with centerline, single-purpose batteries.

(2) Sector Battery CONTROL is that form of dispersed control in which a battery with multiple directors is divided into sectors for control purposes. This form of control is associated with dual-purpose and automatic weapon batteries.

2. BATTERY Control as to METHOD prescribes the grouping of the mounts or turrets with fire control stations, command communications channels between fire control stations, and procedures for designation and acquisition. For a particular vessel the groupings are prescribed in the battle bill

C. GROUP CONTROL is the control of a specified group of a battery. It is concerned with the type and method of fire control, the procedures to be employed, and the acquisition and destruction of designated targets, as well as the detection of undesignated targets appearing in the assigned sector of fire. Group Control is exercised by the Group Control Officer, assisted by Director Officers, Mount Captains or Turret Officers, and CIC Liaison Officers.

D. SECTOR  CONTROL is the control of one group of a battery, or two or more groups of different batteries, each of which is assigned the same sector of fire. It is concerned with the acquisition and destruction of designated targets appearing in the sector. Sector Control is exercised by the Sector Control Officer, assisted by Group Control Officers, and CIC Liaison Officers.

上将

八年服役纪念章功勋勋章钻石金双剑金橡叶铁十字勋章行政立法委骑士团勋章政道纪念章旗手终身荣誉会员

 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-21 23:34:16 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-1-22 17:18 编辑

E. The organized system by means of which the offensive power of armament is controlled is known as FIRE CONTROL.

1. FIRE CONTROL is classified as to TYPE by the system employed. For each type of fire control the battle bill of the vessel specifies the instruments to be employed.
1. 火控从运用系统上可分为以下数种形式。舰艇会依据作战准则为个别火控形式使用指定的设备。
a. PRIMARY FIRE CONTROL prescribes the utilization of the principal system. This is the system provided to control before damage occurs to this system.
a. 主要火控 意指主要系统的运用作业。在发生战损前提供火力控制的系统。
b. SECONDARY FIRE CONTROL prescribes the utilization of an alternate system to give greater flexibility of control.
b. 次要火控 意指备份系统的运用作业以提供火控较大的弹性。

c. AUXILIARY FIRE CONTROL prescribes the utilization of a system provided solely to substitute for a primary system in case of damage.
c. 辅助火控 意指只有在主要系统发生战损时才加以替补的系统运用作业。

d. LOCAL FIRE CONTROL provides for the control of a single gun mount or a turret from a local station in or adjacent to the mount or turret.
d. 局部火控 意指位于炮位炮塔内部或相邻位置以提供本炮位炮塔火控的运用作业。
2. FIRE CONTROL is classified as to METHOD by the procedures employed in the direction of the fire of the battery.
2. 火控从指挥火炮射击的运用过程上可分为以下数种方法。

a. DIRECT FIRE CONTROL is the control procedure employed when the target is observed from the firing vessel visually or by radar.
a. 直接火控 当目标被射击舰目视或雷达侦测到时所使用的控制法。

b. INDIRECT FIRE CONTROL is the control procedure employed when the target is unobserved by the fire control instruments of the firing vessel.
b. 间接火控 当目标无法被射击舰控制设备所侦测到时所使用的控制法。

c. OFFSET FIRE CONTROL is the control procedure employed when a point of aim of known relation-ship to the target is observed from the firing vessel.
c. 移转火控 当已知与目标相关的瞄准点被射击舰目视或雷达侦测到时所使用的控制法。
E3. TARGET INDICATION is a manifestation, to Command and Control, of targets approaching into or appearing in the area of gunfire. It includes all information available for proper designation, including the presence, identity, location, size, number, course, speed, and estimate of intent, plus any additional evaluated factors which are necessary for proper designation.
E3. 目标提示 通报指挥控管单位目标接近或出现在火力范围内。内容包括外观,识别,位置,大小,数量,以及动向预测,再加上任何指定目标所需的必要因素。

上将

八年服役纪念章功勋勋章钻石金双剑金橡叶铁十字勋章行政立法委骑士团勋章政道纪念章旗手终身荣誉会员

 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-22 15:42:03 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-1-22 17:20 编辑

A. TARGET INDICATION is classified as to TYPE by the means by which target presence is manifested.
A. 目标提示
由通报
1. RADAR INDICATION prescribes manifestation of target presence by radar.
1.
2. VISUAL INDICATION prescribes manifestation of target presence by visual sighting.
2.
B. TARGET INDICATION is classified as to METHOD by the system employed to display target presence.
B.
1. AUTOMATIC INDICATION is indication of targets by means of an electromechanical system capable of indicating in one display all targets appearing in the area under investigation.
1.
2. MANUAL Indication is the indication of targets by means of a manual plot of all targets observed or reported in the area under investigation.
2.
E4. TARGET DESIGNATION is the selection of the targets which are to be taken under fire, and transmission of the requisite information for acquisition to the selected fire control station or stations.
E4.
A. TARGET DESIGNATION is classified as to TYPE by the station originating the designation.
A.
1. COMMAND DESIGNATION is the designation of a target by a command station.
1.
a. OTC designating vessel to take target under fire.
a.
b. CO of vessel designating target to be taken under fire.
b.
2. CONTROL DESIGNATION is the designation of a target from a fire control station.
2.
3. LOCAL DESIGNATION is the designation of a target by mount or turret personnel.
3.
B. TARGET DESIGNATION is classified as to METHOD by the procedure employed for designation.
B.
1. AUTOMATIC DESIGNATION is the designation of the target by means of instruments which transmit sufficient data to the selected gun fire control system to result in target acquisition.
2. PARTIAL AUTOMATIC DESIGNATION is the designation of the target by means of a partially automatic system which must be aided by coaching in order that the selected director will be positioned to acquire the target.
2.
3. VERBAL DESIGNATION is the designation of the target by voice or telephone.
3.
E5. TARGET ACQUISITION is the process of positioning the tracking apparatus of a control system so that a designated target is gated in the radar or fixed in the optics or open sights.
E5.

上将

八年服役纪念章功勋勋章钻石金双剑金橡叶铁十字勋章行政立法委骑士团勋章政道纪念章旗手终身荣誉会员

 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-22 15:42:33 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-1-22 17:21 编辑

E6. AIMING is the process of establishing target position in bearing and elevation.
E6.
A. AIM is classified as to TYPE by the instrument employed:
A.
1. RADAR AIM prescribes determination of target bearing and elevation by radar.
1.
a. PARTIAL RADAR AIM prescribes determination of bearing by radar and determination of elevation by stabilizing equipment.
a.
2. OPTICAL AIM prescribes determination of target bearing and elevation by optical instruments.
2.
a. PARTIAL OPTICAL AIM prescribes determination of target bearing by optical instrument and elevation by means of stabilizing equipment.
a.
3. GENERATED AIM prescribes the generation of target bearing and elevation, and corrections thereto for deck inclination, by means of a computer and stabilizing equipment.
3.
B. AIM is classified as to METHOD by the manner in which the aiming system is operated.
B.
1. CONTINUOUS AIM prescribes continuous measurement of target position in bearing and elevation.
1.
a. CONTINUOUS AUTOMATIC AIM prescribes automatic continuous aiming with the aiming instrument.
a.
b. Continuous AIDED AIM prescribes continuous aiming with the aiming instrument positioned by signals received from the computer and with the resulting position corrected by the operators.
b.
c. CONTINUOUS MANUAL AIM prescribes continuous aiming with the aiming instrument positioned by hand, using either direct manual drive or local power.
c.
2. Intermittent AIM prescribes periodic measurement of target position in one element and continuous measurement in the other.
2.
a. SELECTED ELEVATION prescribes determination of target position continuously in bearing and intermittently in elevation.
a.
b. SELECTED TRAIN prescribes determination of target position continuously in elevation and intermittently in train.
b.
E7. RANGING is the process of establishing target distance from the firing ship.
E7.
A. RANGING is classified as to MEANS by the instrument employed:
A.
1. RADAR RANGING prescribes determination of target distance by radar.
1.
2. OPTICAL RANGING prescribes determination of target distance by rangefinder.
2.
3. GENERATED RANGING prescribes the generation of target distance by a computer.
3.
4. ESTIMATE RANGING prescribes the determination of target distance by estimation.
4.
5. NAVIGATIONAL RANGING prescribes the determination of target distance by navigational means.
5.

上将

八年服役纪念章功勋勋章钻石金双剑金橡叶铁十字勋章行政立法委骑士团勋章政道纪念章旗手终身荣誉会员

 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-22 15:42:59 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-1-22 17:21 编辑

B. RANGING is classified as to TYPE by the frequency with which the range is established.
B.
1. CONTINUOUS RANGING is that type of ranging in which target distance is continuously established.
1.
2. INTERMITTENT RANGING is that type of ranging in which target distance is established at intervals.
2.
C. RANGING is classified as to METHOD by the procedure employed to operate the instrument.
C.
1. MANUAL RANGING is that method of ranging in which the ranging instrument is operated by hand.
1.
2. AIDED RANGING is that method of ranging in which the generated change of range is introduced into the ranging instrument and upon which corrections are superimposed manually by the rangefinder or radar operators, as required.
2.
3. AUTOMATIC RANGING is that method of ranging in which the ranging instrument automatically determines target distance of an acquired target.
3.
E8. TRACKING is the process of establishing the path of target motion with respect to the firing ship and is accomplished by combining the data obtained by the aiming and ranging processes.

A. TRACKING is classified as to TYPE by the form of tracking employed.

1. DIRECT TRACKING is that type of tracking in which target path is established by direct observation (radar or optical).


2. INDIRECT TRACKING is that type of tracking in which the range, bearing, and elevation of the target are generated by the computer and its associated equipment.

3. Offset TRACKING is that type of tracking in which the target path is established by the direct observation of an intermediate point of aim in known relationship to the designated target.

B. TRACKING is classified as to METHOD by the manner in which the computers are employed to determine the path of target motion.

1. AUTOMATIC TRACKING is that method of tracking in which the target path is established by use of radar for aiming and ranging and without manual operation of any of the tracking controls in the fire control system.

2. AUTOMATIC LEAD COMPUTING is that method of tracking in which the process of aiming automatically generates a solution of target motion. This method of tracking is associated with instruments using gyros to measure the angular velocity of the LOS.

3. RATE CONTROL is that method of tracking in which the computers generated path of estimated target motion is made to coincide with the observed path of target motion by comparing the observed and generated rates of motion.

a. AUTOMATIC RATE CONTROL is that method of rate controlling in which the generated target motion is automatically corrected to agree with the observed target motion by a rate-control mechanism operated by the director operators.

b. SEMIAUTOMATIC RATE CONTROL is that method of rate controlling in which the generated target motion is automatically corrected to agree with the observed target motion by a rate control mechanism operated by the computer operators.

c. MANUAL RATE CONTROL is that method of rate controlling in which the generated target motion is corrected to agree with observed target motion by changes to target course, speed, and angle of climb introduced manually by the computer operators.


上将

八年服役纪念章功勋勋章钻石金双剑金橡叶铁十字勋章行政立法委骑士团勋章政道纪念章旗手终身荣誉会员

 楼主| 发表于 2011-1-22 15:43:20 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 mathewwu 于 2011-1-22 17:22 编辑

E9. PREDICTING is the process of determining future target position. Predicting operations are accomplished in computers simultaneously and automatically with tracking.

E10. GUN LAYING is the process of positioning guns in train and elevation in a predetermined relationship with respect to the line of sight. The line of sight may be established at an aloft director or generated in the plotting room, or it may be established at the gun.

A. GUN LAYING is classified as to TYPE by the manner in which guns are positioned:

1. CONTINUOUS GUN Laying. Guns are positioned continuously in accordance with the computed signals and loaded at any position.

2. INTERMITTENT GUN LAYING. Guns are positioned when loaded, but must be returned to a specified position after firing for loading.

B. GUN LAYING is classified as to METHOD by the means by which guns are positioned.

1. AUTOMATIC GUN LAYING. Guns are positioned automatically by remote control systems in accordance with signals received.

2. INDICATOR GUN LAYING. Guns are positioned locally in accordance with signals received. Positioning may be effected by either local power or manual drive.

3. LOCAL GUN LAYING. Guns are positioned locally by gun-sight telescope. Positioning may be effected by either local power or manual drive.
E11. GUN FIRING is the process of shooting a gun or guns.
E11. 火炮发射即火炮射击的过程。
A. GUN FIRING is classified as to MEANS by the firing system employed.
A.火炮按发射工具来区分有以下几种手段。
1. ELECTRIC Firing provides for the shooting of a gun by an electrical system controlled by either:
1. 电击发通过电气系统控制可区分为:
a. LOCAL KEY provides for firing by means of a key actuated at the gun mount or turret.
a. 本炮按键击发由装置在本炮塔炮座上的按键击发。
b. Master KEY provides for firing by means of a key actuated at a station remote from the mounts or turrets, such as a director or control station.
b. 总按键击发由安装在远端阵位如指挥仪或火控室内的按键击发。
(1) AUTOMATIC KEY is a form of master key firing in which an automatic contact maker is employed to fire at a selected firing point.
(1) 自动按键击发是总按键击发的一种,在选定的击发点由自动接触开关击发。
2. PERCUSSION Firing provides for the shooting of guns by mechanical firing mechanism at the gun mount or turret.
2
撞击击发由装置在本炮塔炮座上的机械撞针击发。

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